Other, more worried commentators have drawn parallels between now and the 1970s, when the Fed was slow to raise rates as unemployment fell and prices rose — and inflation jumped out of control. But many economists have argued that important differences separate that period from this one: Workers were more heavily unionized and may have had more bargaining power to push for higher wages back then, and the Fed was slow to react for years on end. This time, it’s already gearing up to respond.
Why are price controls thought to be a highly disfavored response to inflation? — Jim Moher, San Leandro, Calif.
In the 1970s, President Richard Nixon tried wage and price controls — which put a cap on how much pay can rise — to control inflation. The freezes worked for a time, but prices rocketed up when they were lifted, and they got a bad rap among economists. That reputation has haunted them ever since. We asked experts about price controls in a recent article, and a vocal minority think that the 1970s experience unfairly tarnished the idea and that it might be worthwhile to reopen the debate.
“This is a great suppressed topic,” said James K. Galbraith, an economist at the University of Texas. “It was absolutely mainstream from the start of World War II until the Reagan administration.”
If inflation is being caused by supply chain problems, how will raising interest rates help? — Larry Harris, Ventura, Calif.
Kristin J. Forbes, an economist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said a big part of today’s inflation ties to roiled supply chains, which monetary policy can’t do much to fix.
But trade is actually happening at elevated levels even amid the disruptions. Factories are producing, ships are shipping, and consumers are buying at a rapid clip. It is just that supply is not keeping up with that booming demand. Higher interest rates can relieve pressure on demand, making it more expensive to buy a boat or a car, cooling off the housing market and slowing business investment.
“A good part of the supply chain problems, you can’t do anything about,” Ms. Forbes said. “But you can affect demand. And it is the combination of the two which determines inflation.”